The last 30-40 years of "guns are bad"..."only bad guys/cops/soldiers carry guns"...."the police are there to protect you"...."it's for the children" garbage.
Pretty much everything you listed plays a part.
Personally, I'm not a fan of the permit system. For example, in VA we pay $50 for a 5-year permit through the county. In other localities, it costs MUCH more than that. Why? Is a background check and paperwork THAT much different? I wish states would look at other states' procedures and streamline where they can (I do NOT want the Fed mandating anything other than universal recognition (like drivers licenses))....so it isn't an undue burden on a citizen to exercise their rights.