Here in Colorado, I recently inquired through the Colorado Bureau of investigation the very thing you ask. The CBI serves as the POC for both the instant check and CCW prmits. The CBI contacts the Insta-Check system. IF there are any hits,, they then go to the specific state database to get specifics and dispositions, to detemine purchaser eligibilty. They also check nation wide mental health records. For CCW, the local sheriff sends fingerprints to FBI for basically the same check, with the fingerprings checking identity, in case of aliases. If a hit is found, they then access the states database where the hit is found, for info, and disposition. After receiving FBI report, the local sheriff than investigates any local info, i.e.or person of interest files, to see if sheriffs have visited you for getting in your neighbors face for example, or repeated visits by sheriff for lewd or violence issues. If sheriff find verifiable and recorded evidence you could be a threat, he can still deny you.