I don't understand why people assume any type of ammunition won't disable an attacker effectively. Consider the basics. You have a hard material (lead,metal,etc.) that is coming at a human being at least 700 FPS in most cases. That would hurt! I wouldn't want to get shot with a pellet out of a pellet gun much less a projectile out of some sort from a firearm. I don't buy a whole lot of stock in folks that say such and such wouldn't be powerful enough to disable an attacker. The key to the level of disablement is all about bullet placement such as throat, eyes, etc. I mean sure a .357 or .44 would do the job, but you could even carry a .22, .25, or .32 and still be fine.