History of the "Modern Technique"

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Thread: History of the "Modern Technique"

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    History of the "Modern Technique"

    The modern technique of the pistol is founded on the following principles.

    The Weaver Stance - The modern shooting stance used with the pistol is the Weaver Stance. The Weaver Stance is sometimes thought of as simply two-handed shooting. It is, however, a specialized form of two-handed shooting which uses isometric tension to provide recoil control and a stable and versatile shooting platform for the pistol. It allows rapid acquisition and target engagement with a powerful sidearm.

    The presentation - This is the drawing technique utilized to allow the swift, consistent, and safe presentation of the pistol, which in turn allows the rapid and accurate delivery of hits on the target. It involves smoothness and a precise procedure to accomplish its goal.

    The flash sight picture - Sight alignment is simply the proper alignment of the front and rear sights which enable the target to be hit. If the sights are not utilized the chances that a target will be missed increase exponentially as the range increase past touching distance. The flash sight picture provides an almost instantaneous verification of the sight's alignment prior to discharging the pistol.

    The surprise break - As with the use of the sights the manipulation of the trigger is also important. The surprise break is simply the application of a smooth squeezing of the trigger but done in a highly compressed time interval. The trigger is not "jerked" or "mashed," it is pressed smoothly but very quickly.

    The heavy-duty big-bore semiautomatic pistol - To terminate the threat of a human attacker requires a powerful blow. The science of wound ballistics (some firearms media "experts" to the contrary) shows us that the best way to achieve immediate incapacitation of an adversary to make the biggest diameter and deepest permanent hole as possible. While some suggest that a medium caliber (9mm/.38, both of which are actually .35") with an expanding bullet can be used successfully, expanding bullets often fail to expand leaving you with a smaller than desired or hoped for hole. Thus it is better to start off with a bullet that is closer to the diameter you'd like the small one to expand to, rather than to rely on expansion to save your bacon. "Big bore" is considered to be .40 caliber or greater. The semiautomatic pistol has been shown over the years to be the most efficient way to deliver a powerful blow in a lethal confrontation, especially when confronted with multiple attackers.

    "The Pistol. Learn it well; wear it always!" - Jeff Cooper

    The excitement and challenge of wide open competition was what led Jack Weaver to develop the Weaver Stance, with the sole purpose of winning Jeff Cooper's "Leatherslap" competition in Big Bear, California. In Cooper's own words, "It began in 1956 at Big Bear when I set up the first Leatherslap. As far as I know, it was the first match of its kind held anywhere in the world. It was unrestricted as to technique, as to weapon, as to caliber, as to holster, as to profession. It was a straight quick-draw match — just draw and hit a target at seven yards."

    At that time everyone shot from the hip or one-handed from the shoulder, which is a loosely defined style know as "point shooting." This worked well on television, but in real life competition things are different. According to Jack, sometimes "what started out as serious business soon produced gales of laughter from the spectators as most of the shooters blazed away…" Then "with guns empty and all 12 rounds gone but the 18 inch balloons still standing, they had a problem: load one round and take aim or load six and blaze away again."

    By the time the 1959 Leatherslap rolled around Jack had realized that "a pretty quick hit was better than a lightening-fast miss," and decided to bring the pistol up using both hands and actually aim it rather than simply point and shoot. Quoting Cooper again, "Jack walloped us all — and decisively — using a six inch Smith K-38. He was very quick and he did not miss. And, of course, he shot from the Weaver Stance, which was, and is, the way to go."

    As the world of practical pistol shooting evolved, more complicated contests were developed and it was discovered that when speed was not quite as important as it was in a "Leatherslap," the Weaver Stance worked even better. In time, everyone began using it.

    In 1982, the Weaver Stance received what may be the ultimate endorsement. Jack received a letter from James D. McKenzie, then assistant director of the FBI, which had just completed a year long survey of handgun shooting techniques.

    We'll start with two non-Americans, Captains William Fairbairn and Eric Sykes, both British. In the 1920's, these two guys, both very tough hombres, went to Shanghai, China as police officers. Shanghai, at this time, was one very tough town. Together, Fairbairn and Sykes created a complete close quarter combat system that included firearms skills in order to combat the dangerous individuals that they would have to go up against on a daily basis. The firearms techniques they taught their fellow officers were based on simplicity and ease of training. They were only interested in what worked, and what would save lives. The most notable aspect of their techniques were the fact that they relied on natural physiological responses of human beings under stress. One handed, non-sighted fire, now known as point shooting, was the primary method for close and deadly encounters, as it was fast in engagements and got the job done. Point shooting, using one hand, was simply the fastest, most natural, and easiest-to-teach method of reactive shooting in lethal engagements at close contact distances, the most common type of combat situation in Shanghai during this time.

    Well, in the early 1940's, an army colonel named Rex Applegate, familiar with Fairbairn and Syke's techniques and their effectiveness, instituted them as the primary training system for the troops in World War II. For their firearms training, Applegate taught the G.I.'s how to use one-handed point shooting to hit a target at 50 meters very quickly with very little training. This was basically a technique where one pointed, one handed, at the target with the gun, with the shooter focusing on the target over the gun's slide. The weapon was brought up to line of sight, under control and using a straight arm, with the strong foot forward. Many of the guys that went through Applegate's program ended up using these point shooting techniques to win many deadly encounters during the course of the war. This brings us to the late 1950's and into the 1960's.

    This is the time of Jeff Cooper(considered to be the father of modern pistolcraft, or the "modern technique"), Bill Jordan, and Chic Gaylord. Jeff Cooper was the most outspoken of the three, and started the Southwest Combat Pistol League (SWCPL) in Big Bear, California in the 1960's. He formed the league with 5 other "masters". These were Jack Weaver, Elden Carl, Thell Reed, John Plahn, and Ray Chapman. Jack Weaver's "Weaver technique" became the predominant technique used by the top shooters, as those that used this technique were winning all the competitions. The Weaver technique employs isometric tension, where the strong hand pushes, while the support hand pulls back to control recoil. While using the Weaver, the shooter is bladed towards the target, and the support elbow is in a downward position below the strong arm. The Weaver technique simply proved to be superior to one handed techniques for long distance shooting on the types of shooting stages that were set up for the competitions of that time.

    True to the politics of California, the SWCPL was soon forced to change it's name by the Governor of California at the time, to the Southwest Pistol League (SWPL). The name change was forced on it because the word "combat" was too strong for the politicians. Now, it needs to be understood that the founding members of the SWCPL, and subsequent SWPL were, at that time, considered to be the best shooters in the country. The SWPL became very important in the shooting world, and shaped the entire shooting community in the ensuing years.

    In the mid 1970's, Cooper and others from the SWPL established the International Practical Shooting Confederation, a.k.a. IPSC. When it was first formed, IPSC was designed to be a testbed for combat shooting techniques, equipment, and mindset. Here was a place where the Weaver stance and other combat techniques and principles could be tested in the safety of competition. All the equipment used for this competition was defensive type gear. The matches themselves were designed with combat in mind. This would later change, and IPSC would become a pure shooting competition where high-tech competion style gear, including compensators and optical sights, would come to rule.

    The Modern Tecchnique has 5 elements according to Cooper himself. The Weaver stance, the presentation, the flash sight picture, the surprise break of the trigger and the use of a big bore handgun.

    The Modern Technique is 50 years old this year. When one speaks of this technique, it doesn't necessarily have to mean modern in the true sense of the word. It was born of competition, not combat. It was born through peoples experiences of one handed shooting at distances that were not conducive to one handed shooting, something that had been used up until the end of WW2 by Fairbairn/Sykes and Applegate for the majority of true real world gunfight distances with great success on the streets of the world.

    It is what it is. History tells us the story of the how and why of the Modern Technique and why it became considered successful over the older one handed shooting disciplines then in vogue based on combat at combative distances.

    Not because it was better at staying alive, but because it was better in a competition at certain longer distances not usually encountered in self defense shootings.

    The Modern Technique [ the weaver stance ] was officially adopted by the FBI back in 1982. It then moved through the US Law Enforcement community over decades. The same US LE community who usually takes their lead from the FBI and still does primarily today for better or worse.

    There's the history. It is factual and indisputable. What can be debated is whether the LE community or the FBI should have ever adopted it to begin with for the streets.

    Please keep your responses civil, and factual here. The information provided is gleaned from historical data.

    Brownie
    The mind is the limiting factor

    Quick Kill Rifle and Pistol Instructor

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    The Modern Technique is hands down superior to the old "FBI crouch".

    It's stood the test of time because it works.


    When you’re wounded and left on Afghanistan’s plains,
    And the women come out to cut up what remains,
    Just roll to your rifle and blow out your brains,
    And go to your God like a soldier.

    Rudyard Kipling


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    The Modern Technique is hands down superior to the old "FBI crouch".

    Not according to the statistics of their use and results in the real world on the streets in gunfights in the past, nor FoF training today.

    If you'd provide us with an explanation behind your statement and the historical data to support that, I'd be interested.

    Brownie
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    Hi Brownie, Interesting post, it should spark some good conversation. I'm going to wait a little before I chime in.

    BTW, I spoke with Rich today and I am still planning on attending your class, as long as the women folk do what they are supposed to around here. If not, I'll have two cases of 9mm to burn.
    "Just blame Sixto"

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    Just an FYI,
    I am currently in POST training and my firearms classes are being taught at Colorado State Patrol. They have gone back to isosceles stance.

    It took a bit of time for me to adjust from my weaver stance but now that I have I like it better. Even when shooting on the move.

    Their reasoning is that one, its a gross motor skill based on skeletal alignment, therefore it will be more stable even under high stress. And two it keeps your vest and trauma plate facing to the threat.

    Something else I have noticed is I seem to have better recoil management during high speed shooting as well.

    I don't have enough experience to argue which one is best, I just thought I would point out that not all law enforcement agencies are still teaching the weaver stance.
    "You can't shake the devils hand and say you were only kidding"

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    Quote Originally Posted by AzQkr View Post
    The Modern Technique is hands down superior to the old "FBI crouch".

    Not according to the statistics of their use and results in the real world on the streets in gunfights in the past, nor FoF training today.

    If you'd provide us with an explanation behind your statement and the historical data to support that, I'd be interested.

    Brownie
    I'll second a vote for the old crouch. The best advice I've ever received from an instructor was to try it before I knocked it.
    "Wise people learn when they can; fools learn when they must." - The Duke of Wellington

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    Interesting post, it should spark some good conversation

    I would think so as well.

    I spoke with Rich today and I am still planning on attending your class

    Looking forward to it sir.

    What people need to consider in this equation of a dilemma I've posted here, is that dash cams have not shown officers moving into any semblance of a weaver "stance" when TSH'sTF, even though that was their training.

    Instincts over-ride training under stress too often to ignore. As well, you are likely to fire one handed in all but the farthest shots while moving and at a moving threat [ time and distance requirements considered here ].

    Weaver is good when you have the time and distance to use that skill. When you don't, taking the time to bring the gun to line of sight, get into a weaver "stance", you could die trying to get to your sights. Weaver is not going to be the best answer for up close and personal encounters which are most often encountered on the streets.

    Weaver has it's strengths, that was born out at Big Bear at Coopers place a long time ago. What they failed to realize, or in their own interests ignored, was that human opponents are much bigger than the balloons they were shooting, you only need combat accuracy which the balloons didn't replicate [ it was more a precision exercise than combat ], and at typical gun play ranges encountered, does not beat the threat focused trained shooter. Weaver also works directly against the human startle response under stress and takes more training to default to than the majority of officers ever have or will ever likely receive.

    It's been shown throughout the time Weaver has been used that it's not the best answer/response to the street in the majority of cases for the reasons already stated above.

    Quite simply, it [ MT ] was not the best answer to officers survival on the streets. We now know real world skills with exemplary track records were discarded by some pencil pusher in Wash rather than incorporate both sighted [ Weaver ] and the well established threat focused skills based on time and distance requirements.

    Mistakes were made in the decision process relative training, those mistakes were blindly followed by other agencies until the LE community was fully neutered of the real world skills they needed as well as had from the 30's through early 60's.

    Fortunately, thats all changing now and the skills men like Bryce, Jordan, and Askins used for decades and never lost a gunfight are being rediscovered again, and the training in these skills is back in the fore with many agencies.

    Brownie
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    Quick Kill Rifle and Pistol Instructor

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    I posted this same thing on 3/6/06 on another site:

    History of the "Modern Technique" - Threat Focused Forums

    And below some thoughts a few days later:

    The techniques developed by F/S and later Applegate were effective for that time and place and the situations officers found themselves in. They were specifically developed to help solve shortcomings and to increase the chances of survival at the distances most commonly encountered.

    In that regard, the techniques they developed were for close in, rapidly developing scenarios where a handgun would be the best solution. They worked in self defense within a given range very well and they still work as well today.

    These FAS techniques did not work as well at longer distances when and if they were encountered and subsequently were found to be somewhat lacking. No fault of the techniques, they were specifically designed for bad breath distances and some distance beyond for the most part.

    After WW2, America got back to "normal". We were no longer at war and the country prospered. Life and crime on the streets of main street USA were not the same as in Shanghai. For over a decade until the mid 50's, most people were still shooting one handed. Target shooters posed the classic sidestance and took careful aim, fast draw became the fad based on that new fangled technology called a tele-vision and shows like Hopalong Cassidy, Roy Rogers and Dale, etc. Everybody wanted to be a cowboy and shot from the hip like they saw the good guys do in the early westerns on the screen.

    I grew up in that era, and had my share of sixguns strapped on, while I fought the BG's and those we forced to play the role of indians. No respectable cowboy would dare shoot two handed, he'd be laughed out of Dodge City for sure, nor did we even know you could shoot two handed unless there was a gun in both of them, of course.

    We already know how the Weaver two handed stance came on the scene and why. It was the answer to a specific problem that was obvious, as discussed in the above history.

    By then, the war to end all wars was only a feint memory to most. People were looking to the future of America, not the past. No one wants to remember the lessons learned in battles, and most didn't even know where Shanghai was, let alone what happened there or the men who changed history through necessity, which is the mother of all invention.

    Necessity, the mother of invention? Hmmm, thats why Weaver created the two handed technique come to think of it right? It solved a specific problem people had in a specific situation. It just happened to be competition, but still it was a solution that worked for shooting pistols at longer distances better than other methods where speed and accuracy were needed.

    Speed and accuracy issues were solved with two handed shooting and a relatively stable shooting platform. That one fact brought two handed shooting to law enforcement eventually and it also brought acceptance of how a handgun could be fired without the stigma of using two hands and not being the cowboy.

    FAS had long been forgotten in a far off land at this point. Sure there were some who tried to keep the information in the right hands where it could do some good, but for whatever reason, they were unsuccesful. Could have been that people heard it was used on the mean streets in wars in battle and couldn't see their own police departments having that mentality of killing efficiently and effectively.

    Could have been a kinder gentler mentality was taking over the country. People lost their taste for killing, didn't want to think about our enforcement officers having to be involved with all that real world nastiness.

    Okay, here's the point of this:

    If it had not been for Weaver, for the competition it was spawned from, we would have probably discovered two handed shooting eventually through some other necessity and mother of invention. It has to have been inevitable and only a matter of time.

    Since Weaver, things have progressed with interpretations on a theme to create ISO, modern ISO, modified Weaver, etc. All of these have strengths and weaknesses, but all of them allow for better recoil management [ as a rule ] and for most, better accuracy coupled with speed increases.

    Perhaps Weaver and Cooper are responsible for bringing two handed shooting acceptance to where it withstood major overhaul and developments to be what two handed is today.

    A natural progression and order of events. Someone would have come up with two handed shooting if Waever hadn't eventually. Two handed shooting has evolved into a viable way to "get er done". I shoot two handed like most people. I shoot faster and more accurately at the same time two handed, as I'm sure a lot of people do.

    These two handed skills are necessary IMO. Certainly not for those times when one handed reactive skills are needed up close and personal, but still a necessary skills set to be well rounded.

    Remember it was mentioned that one technique will not work all the time? Like Weaver won't work all the time, neither will FAS or any one handed technique work all the time.

    Tools in the tool box, like DJ reminds us often here and elsewhere. The more tools the better right? Two handed skills have been ever evolving like everything does in life.

    Competition brought us two handed skills, and competitions of today have brought variations on that theme to a high level skills set. One necessary to own whether we want to admit it or not.

    How and when the different platforms and skills are used between one hand and two hand shooting is subject to interpretation. Skills developed through competition have evolved from experimentation and reseach and developement by some very innovative shooting advocates.

    These skills are viable on the streets IMO, at least as viable and one handed skills. It's the when and where to use them [ which one ] that brings debate now for the most part.

    Like Weaver was bad in some situations and had it's strengths in others, so one handed shooting has it's shortcoming and strengths. Know the difference and when to use these to your advantage, and you stand a greater chance of surviving a lethal encounter when the handgun is needed.

    Use one or the other at the wrong time and suffer the consequences, possibly fatal consequences of those choices. There is no right or wrong way, no right or wrong technique, only the use of them at the right or wrong time that makes or breaks you.

    Just like there is a time to use your sights, or some part therof, there is a time to ignore them as well. Again, it's not an either or, it's both, and knowing not only both way to run the gun, but more importantly, when to use them or not use them to your advantage.

    Whether we like it or not, competition has spawned many ways to skin the cat pretty damned well. Whether we like it or not, one and two handed threat focused methods have spawned many ways to skin the cat pretty damned well also.

    Brownie
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    Interesting reply, Robin.
    Does that person not know that two handed shooting was taught by many instructors prior to 1930?
    Pick up Shooting by Fitzgerald to see the "Weaver" stance illustrated in 1930.

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    Matt,

    With that knowledge, we should perhaps change this------

    We already know how the Weaver two handed stance came on the scene and why. It was the answer to a specific problem that was obvious, as discussed in the above history.

    to------ We already know how the Weaver two handed stance came on the scene in the 60's, and not for the first time in history as it were. It was the answer to a specific problem that was obvious, as discussed in the above history.

    Pick up Shooting by Fitzgerald

    Thanks for the heads up

    Brownie
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    About 5 year ago I was in Sweden teaching point shooting to a SWAT team from Malmo.
    First I went into the history of point shooting--from 1910 to about 1980.
    Then I went into the history of the Weaver--which was then a part of their basic training.
    It went something like this...
    "In the 1950's some action shooters were having trouble hitting balloons at 7 yards during competition/quick draw games.
    A guy named Jack Weaver found that if he did this ( I would then demo a Weaver) that he could hit them better.
    Alas--the birth of the Weaver!!"
    One of the cop's mouth dropped open and he said,
    "You mean we have been staking our lives on something designed to shoot balloons!!!"
    My feelings exactly.

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    Very interesting post,

    The linage of combat shooting is easy to trace. Fairbairn and Sykes had a bigger impact on shooting then most people thing. When most people hear the names Fairbairn and Sykes they think of Applegate but not of the China Marines as well as the Raiders that learned from them as well.

    These soldiers and Marines then returned after the war and continued to teach this art and pass it on. However, with every student comes small changes that makes the techniques fit that person and things were added to the original design. Sometimes this is good and sometimes this is bad depending on the influence.

    Some people left the path and become converts of weaver/ MT in its hay day and others only left long enough to see it wasn't for them and a few continued to teach what they knew worked.

    In the 1990, there was a series of gun rag articles that attempted to put the final nails in point shooting. Even the military had dropped it from it training requirements. However, around 2000, a problem was identified and the MT track record showed that while LEO's were winning gun fights at distance but loosing them at close quarters.

    The problem was that the techniques taught in this system were not effective for close quarters gun fights. This turned yet another chapter in training and techniques.

    The way I look at it to be a complete shooter a person needs to be proficient at both one and two handed shooting skills as well as threat focused and sighted fire.

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    Quote Originally Posted by 7677 View Post
    ...The way I look at it to be a complete shooter a person needs to be proficient at both one and two handed shooting skills as well as threat focused and sighted fire.
    Bingo! ^^

    I'd add just one other item...
    One should also optimally be accustomed and proficient for combat accuracy in shooting with their weak hand as dominant as well.
    For example I'm right hand dominant with right eye dominance. I also train regularly and on days singularly including shooting IDPA days too using my left hand as strong hand for two and one handed draw as well as fire.
    Why? Because if my right trigger finger, hand, or arm are broken or disabled I don't want to find my whole self broken or disabled.
    For a police or persons going into places of danger and wild such practice and capability can literally be a life preserver if not saver.

    I personally do not believe there is any one specific 'method' that is Swiss Army applicable to all conditions and applications, even as for some people some styles and modes are superior to others.

    - Janq
    "Killers who are not deterred by laws against murder are not going to be deterred by laws against guns. " - Robert A. Levy

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    Quote Originally Posted by Janq View Post
    Bingo! ^^

    I'd add just one other item...
    One should also optimally be accustomed and proficient for combat accuracy in shooting with their weak hand as dominant as well.
    For example I'm right hand dominant with right eye dominance. I also train regularly and on days singularly including shooting IDPA days too using my left hand as strong hand for two and one handed draw as well as fire.
    Why? Because if my right trigger finger, hand, or arm are broken or disabled I don't want to find my whole self broken or disabled.
    For a police or persons going into places of danger and wild such practice and capability can literally be a life preserver if not saver.

    I personally do not believe there is any one specific 'method' that is Swiss Army applicable to all conditions and applications, even as for some people some styles and modes are superior to others.

    - Janq
    I agree and being a lefty I learned to be ambidextrous. I carry my BUG in my support side front pant pocket and practice shooting my M4 and 870 from the support side too.

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