Regardless, rather than assuming that the essays written by two of the Founding Fathers (as insightful as they are) reflect the opinions of all or even a majority of the Framers, I find that the Militia Act of 1792 (passed May 8, 1792) is a much more thorough reference for how the Framers intended the militia to be armed.
Considering it was passed only three years after the Constitution was ratified, I think it is valid to assume that it embodies the same views of the Milita as were held at the time the Constitution was written. Presumably, since it passed, it reflects the majority opinion and not just the opinion of a few people. It is quite specific, to wit:
My reading is that the majority of the militiamen were expected to equip himself as a rifleman. The additional statement: "and that from and after five years from the passing of this Act, all muskets from arming the militia as is herein required, shall be of bores sufficient for balls of the eighteenth part of a pound," indicates to me an effort to standardize the weapons of the Militia to a common caliber, presumably the standard caliber of the Federal Army.That each and every free able-bodied white male citizen of the respective States, resident therein, who is or shall be of age of eighteen years, and under the age of forty-five years (except as is herein after excepted) shall severally and respectively be enrolled in the militia, by the Captain or Commanding Officer of the company, within whose bounds such citizen shall reside, and that within twelve months after the passing of this Act. And it shall at all time hereafter be the duty of every such Captain or Commanding Officer of a company, to enroll every such citizen as aforesaid, and also those who shall, from time to time, arrive at the age of 18 years, or being at the age of 18 years, and under the age of 45 years (except as before excepted) shall come to reside within his bounds; and shall without delay notify such citizen of the said enrollment, by the proper non-commissioned Officer of the company, by whom such notice may be proved. That every citizen, so enrolled and notified, shall, within six months thereafter, provide himself with a good musket or firelock, a sufficient bayonet and belt, two spare flints, and a knapsack, a pouch, with a box therein, to contain not less than twenty four cartridges, suited to the bore of his musket or firelock, each cartridge to contain a proper quantity of power and ball; or with a good rifle, knapsack, shot-pouch, and power-horn, twenty balls suited to the bore of his rifle, and a quarter of a power of power; and shall appear so armed, accoutred and provided, when called out to exercise or into service, except, that when called out on company days to exercise only, he may appear without a knapsack. That the commissioned Officers shall severally be armed with a sword or hanger, and espontoon; and that from and after five years from the passing of this Act, all muskets from arming the militia as is herein required, shall be of bores sufficient for balls of the eighteenth part of a pound; and every citizen so enrolled, and providing himself with the arms, ammunition and accoutrements, required as aforesaid, shall hold the same exempted from all suits, distresses, executions or sales, for debt or for the payment of taxes.
In more modern standards, I believe the militia would closely resemble that of the Swiss. Every militiaman would be responsible for providing a rifle (presumably of the M4/M16/AR-15-pattern though I suppose one cold make the arguement that any rifle capable of firing 5.56mmx45mm ammunition would suffice), its ancillary equipment and a basic load of ammunition.
The Militia Act further defines the formation of other types of units:
Note that the cannon, the crew-served weapon of its day, is not required to be provided by the Militia nor are any other specialized weapons. Presumably, the intent was that they would be provided by the Federal Governement, were the Militia to be raised. Individual weapons and equipment were expected to be provided by the Militiaman, including pistols.That out of the militia enrolled as is herein directed, there shall be formed for each battalion, as least one company of grenadiers, light infantry or riflemen; and that each division there shall be, at least, one company of artillery, and one troop of horse: There shall be to each company of artillery, one captain, two lieutenants, four serjeants, four corporals, six gunners, six bombardiers, one drummer, and one fifer. The officers to be armed with a sword or hanger, a fusee, bayonet and belt, with a cartridge box to contain twelve cartridges; and each private of matoss shall furnish themselves with good horses of at least fourteen hands and an half high, and to be armed with a sword and pair of pistols, the holsters of which to be covered with bearskin caps. Each dragoon to furnish himself with a serviceable horse, at least fourteen hands and an half high, a good saddle, bridle, mail-pillion and valise, holster, and a best plate and crupper, a pair of boots and spurs; a pair of pistols, a sabre, and a cartouchbox to contain twelve cartridges for pistols. That each company of artillery and troop of house shall be formed of volunteers from the brigade, at the discretion of the Commander in Chief of the State, not exceeding one company of each to a regiment, nor more in number than one eleventh part of the infantry, and shall be uniformly clothed in raiments, to be furnished at their expense, the colour and fashion to be determined by the Brigadier commanding the brigade to which they belong.
Therefore, based on my reading, rifles of the type currently in use by the Federal Army as well as pistols are authorized. Specialized weapons including machineguns, flamethrowers, cruise missiles, etc. are not. They remain under the control of the Federal Governement and are issued to the States as the Federal Government deems necessary.
Again based on my reading and interpretation, M1A's would have been acceptable during the period that the M-14 was the standard issue rifle and the AR-15/M-4/M-16 would be acceptable today. Handguns were, and continue to be acceptable, high-capacity magazines and all.
Based on my interpretation, the word "Militia" is an excellent arguement that everyone should be allowed to own a select-fire (3 round burst not FA) M-4 or M-16A2/4 and/or handgun. Nothing else.
Now that whole "...shall not be infringed," thing is another story.