Thanks to the OP for a good read.
The OP is right when he says that ballistic gelatin does not tell the whole story. Wet newspapers and red clay do not tell the story either.
I have been a dedicated hog hunter for the past ten years. Most of my hogs have been killed with a .50 muzzleloader. The past couple of years much of my hog hunting has been done with centerfire rifles. The man who owns the places I hunt on wants lots of dead hogs. He said wussing around with a muzzleloader was not getting it done.
Wild hogs are a good test median for bullets. They are plentiful and, like humans, they come come in a variety of sizes up 350 pounds or so. One of the most effective hog killers is the military 5.56 mm M193 ball round. At ranges up to 150 yards when fired from a 20-24" barrel, that little 55 grain bullet penetrates about 5", yaws 90 degrees and fragments.
Last week I killed a 270 pound boar hog that was hit just behind the diaphragm: Range was about 40 yards. Fragments of that 55 grain military bullet shredded the diaphragm, heart and lungs. The hog was DRT.
At ranges in excess of 150 yards of so the bullet starts to lose its magic.
Army Col. Martin Fackler is the worlds foremost authority on military wound ballistics.
A good read:
Military bullet wound patterns