The first ten amendments, commonly referred to as the Bill of Rights, have a very interesting history of their own. The United States started out as a nation-state under the Articles of Confederation, each state essentially remaining a sovereign nation with (largely optional) obligations to observe the sovereignty of the other states and provide for interstate commerce and national defense. Within a few years it became obvious that national government was impossible without the means to compel the individual states to respect the rights of other states and to observe a reasonable measure of compliance with national interests.Years back (way, way back) in a business law class, I read the Constitution front to back for the first time, not in excerpts like in high school. I was amazed at how well written it was and with so much foresight. If only they had used a bit more foresight when writing the amendments.
Over a period of years there was considerable public debate over the issues of contention, largely documented in "The Federalist Papers" and "The Anti-Federalist Papers" (strongly recommended reading as a basis for understanding the original intent and proper functions of government under the current Constitution, as well as the general concept of "federalism"). Adoption of the proposed Constitution of the United States during the Constitutional Convention of 1789 was not a foregone conclusion, and the entire idea of a united government of the several states was hanging by a very thin thread (with considerable outside interest by various foreign regimes).
The key point to understand is that the Constitution would never have been accepted by the delegates without the Bill of Rights, seen as an absolute necessity to prevent usurpation of states' rights and individuals' rights by a strong central government.
Now, 232 years later, the debates continue over the limitations on federal control, the extent of states' rights, and the continuing need for individuals' rights. The rights guaranteed by our Constitution and Bill of Rights have always been under attack, always been questioned, always viewed as an obstacle in the way of some person's or party's agenda and vision for the future.
Much to be learned, and I sincerely wish that our public school curricula were based upon a study of the history of our Constitution.