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Does CCW have an effect on violent crime?

3679 Views 17 Replies 10 Participants Last post by  KenpoTex
I was having a discussion with my dad about CCW and why Illinois citizens should be allowed to carry. He told me that according to one of his pro-gun coworkers, CCW has no impact (positive or negative) on violent crimes in states where these laws are passed. I've come up short looking for statistics to back up my claims.

Does CCW actually reduce violent crime? Where can I find a reliable source that either proves or disproves this?

Thanks in advance.
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Since MI enacted

our CCW and became a shall issue state, our crime according to the anti "Detroit News" has dropped all across the board, rape, assault, with pulled permits for violations is like less than .00 of a %. If you want numbers try the NRA ILA site.

Violent crime rates are highest overall in states with laws severely limiting or prohibiting the carrying of concealed firearms for self-defense. (FBI Uniform Crime Reports, 1992) -

The total Violent Crime Rate is 26% higher in the restrictive states (798.3 per 100,000 pop.) than in the less restrictive states (631.6 per 100,000).

The Homicide Rate is 49% higher in the restrictive states (10.1 per 100,000) than in the states with less restrictive CCW laws (6.8 per 100,000).

The Robbery Rate is 58% higher in the restrictive states (289.7 per 100,000) than in the less restrictive states (183.1 per 100,000).

The Aggravated Assault Rate is 15% higher in the restrictive states (455.9 per 100,000) than in the less restrictive states (398.3 per 100,000). Using the most recent FBI data (1992), homicide trends in the 17 states with less restrictive CCW laws compare favorably against national trends, and almost all CCW permittees are law-abiding.

Since adopting CCW (1987), Florida's homicide rate has fallen 21% while the U.S. rate has risen 12%. From start-up 10/1/87 2/28/94 (over 6 yrs.) Florida issued 204,108 permits; only 17 (0.008%) were revoked because permittees later committed crimes (not necessarily violent) in which guns were present (not necessarily used).

Of 14,000 CCW licensees in Oregon, only 4 (0.03%) were convicted of the criminal (not necessarily violent) use or possession of a firearm. Americans use firearms for self-defense more than 2.1 million times annually.

By contrast, there are about 579,000 violent crimes committed annually with firearms of all types. Seventy percent of violent crimes are committed by 7% of criminals, including repeat offenders, many of whom the courts place on probation after conviction, and felons that are paroled before serving their full time behind bars.

Two-thirds of self-protective firearms uses are with handguns.

99.9% of self-defense firearms uses do not result in fatal shootings of criminals, an important factor ignored in certain "studies" that are used to claim that guns are more often misused than used for self-protection. Of incarcerated felons surveyed by the Department of Justice, 34% have been driven away, wounded, or captured by armed citizens; 40% have decided against committing crimes for fear their would-be victims were armed.


With adoption of CCW by Arizona, Tennessee and Wyoming in early 1994, 19 states have CCW laws requiring the issuance of permits to carry concealed firearms for self-defense to citizens who meet fair and reasonable state standards. Vermont, which ranks near the bottom in violent crime rates year-in and year-out, allows firearms to be carried concealed without a permit.

In recent years NRA successfully fought for the adoption of favorable CCW laws now on the books in Florida (1987), Idaho (1990, amended 1991), Mississippi (1990), Montana (1991), and Oregon (1990). In recent legislative sessions, proposals for similar CCW laws have progressed in Alaska, Colorado, Missouri, Oklahoma and Texas.

Anti-gun forces oppose CCW with a variety of arguments, ranging from deliberate misrepresentations of commonly available crime data to "studies" pretending to show that private ownership of firearms leads to death and injury rather than providing protection to the owner.

1. Firearms ownership opponents claim that "violent crime" went up in Florida since that state enacted CCW legislation in 1987, a misleading statement for multiple reasons:

Florida's homicide rate has declined 21% since adopting CCW in1987.

No comparison of aggravated assault, robbery, and rape (99.3% of Florida violent crimes) beginning before 1988 is valid,according to the Florida Dept. of Law Enforcement. In 1988,Florida changed its method of compiling crime statistics.

In Florida, as in the U.S., more than 70% of violent crimes do not involve guns. Violent crime rates, therefore, don't necessarily reflect violent gun-related crime trends. According to the most recent FBI Uniform Crime Reports (1992), nationwide firearms were used in the four violent crimes that make up the total "Violent Crime" category, as follows: Aggravated Assault (58% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in 25%; Robbery (35% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in 41%; Rapes (6% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in an estimated 5%-10% (survey data); and Homicides (1% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in 68%.

In Florida: Aggravated Assaults (64% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in 25%; Robberies (30% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in 37%; Rapes (4% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in an estimated 5%-10% (survey data); and Homicides (0.7% of violent crimes) -- firearms used in 61%.

2. Anti-gunners cite "studies" they claim show that firearms kept at home are "43 times more likely" to be used to kill family members than be used for self-defense. (Other "studies" claim different ratios.) The 43:1 claim, based upon a small-scale study of Kings County (Seattle) and Shelby County (Memphis), is a fraud, because it counts as self-defense gun uses only those cases in which criminals were killed in the defender's home. Approximately 99.9% of all defensive gun uses are not fatal shootings, however -- criminals are usually frightened off, held at bay, or non-fatally wounded. Also, many defensive firearms uses occur away from home. Further, suicides were counted as "family member killings" in the "study," elevating that number more than 500%. Unfortunately, some of these "studies" are funded with taxpayer dollars, through grants from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, a division of the U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services.


This information is presented as a service to the Internet community by the NRA/ILA.

Many files are available via anonymous ftp from and via WWW at

Be sure to subscribe to rkba-alert by sending: subscribe rkba-alert Your Full Name as the body of a message to [email protected]

Information can also be obtained by connecting to the NRA-ILA GUN-TALK BBS at (703) 934-2121.
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Good to hear

Sheldon J said:
our CCW and became a shall issue state, our crime according to the anti "Detroit News" has dropped all across the board, rape, assault, with pulled permits for violations is like less than .00 of a %. If you want numbers try the NRA ILA site.
I'll check the NRA ILA site.

Do you have any links to those articles from the Detroit News?
Stat's evidence is hard to find (tho added thx to HG for his details!) but - I'd work this slightly in reverse and cite the big no-no cities like DC, NYC, Chicago etc as prime examples of where high crime is rife and yet no CCW is allowed. I am convinced violent crimes would reduce measurably if things were different, tho leave the gangs to themselves - they'll always be capping each other.

Ergo - the fewer guns in legitimate and responsible possession - the more likely will be the bad guy's blatant attempts at victimization of the innocent.

Another factor - coming from prisoners behind bars - when quizzed about guns they are much less fearful of cops than they are of the armed citizen - pretty much all admit the same. Armed citizen is feared.

There is plenty of crime in PA but I do firmly believe that potential bad guys must be influenced by the level not only of gun ownership (most houses have guns) but even more so the knowledge (if they are smart) that 6% and even more now maybe, of PA citizens carry.

Made me think - at a local stock car race evening with maybe just 2,000 people present - in theory 120 could be carrying - quite a disincentive to bad guys IMO.
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Ever notice that crime in the citys is more prevalent than crime in the countryside ?

The BG's know that if they get out of city limits their chances of getting shot go way up !
In the never ending battle of words, anti-gun advocates (kind of an oxymoron her I think) will always quote the quantity of violent crime when stating their positions on CCW. Those with more common sense will ask what the RATE of violent crime per 1,000 people. Evidently the "anti's" don't realize that we still have a positive birth rate in this country and there are more people in big cities.

I would think that both considered, the growth, and the reduction in rate would be a double nail in their arguments coffin.
Well thanks for the advice, guys. I was really hoping to find something more concrete.
The following are facts with citations of source(s) from the site 'Maryland Shall':

Maryland CCW Permit Info

Some say that Maryland's Concealed Carry Handgun Permit system is fine the way it is.

Are they right?

28.9 percent of all Permits are issued to police officers. However, in July of 2004, federal legislation (HR 218) was signed into law allowing both active and retired police officers to carry a concealed firearm for protection while off duty in all 50 states and the District of Columbia. The Permits issued to most of these officers are no longer really needed.

37.6 percent of all Permits are issued to corrections officers, security guards, private detectives, judges, bail bondsmen and others working in areas of government, security or the judicial system.

31.8 percent of all Permits are issued to business people who deal with a lot of cash.

Just 1.7 percent of all Permits are issued to people for Personal Protection. Only 661 Permits in a State with a population of 5.6 million. That’s just one Permit issued for every 8,473 people.

Delaware also has a Discretionary Permit system, but they issue one Permit for every 767 people. You are ten times more likely to get a Permit in Delaware than in Maryland.

How about in the surrounding Shall Issue states?

In West Virginia, one out of every 71 people has a Permit.

In Virginia, one out of every 68 people has a Permit.

And in Pennsylvania, one out of every 21 people has a Permit.

Well, surely Maryland must be safer, right?

According to the annually published FBI Uniform Crime Report here’s how all these states ranked for crime in 2004.

FBI Uniform Crime Report, Crime in the United State, 2004
Rankings by State (a high number indicates a LOW crime rate)
State Violent crime Murder Robbery Aggravated assault Property crime Motor vehicle theft
Maryland 3 2 1 7 22 6
Delaware 9 45 13 8 30 34
Pennsylvania 23 23 12 26 44 35
Virginia 35 22 26 37 37 37
West Virginia 36 30 41 27 41 41
* A detailed breakdown of exactly what type of persons are MD licensed CCW'rs by career, gender and race is provided at the source site.

National Survey Results of Police Chiefs and Sheriffs

The following survey question was posed by mail of 22,587 Chiefs of Police and Sheriffs in the United States. It represents a cross section of professional command officers involving every state. The survey was conducted for the 16th consecutive year by the National Association of Chiefs of Police. (321)264-0911. [email protected]

Q. Do you agree that a national concealed handgun permit would reduce rates of violent crime as recent studies in some states have already reflected?

A. 65.7% responded YES

--from American Police Hall of Fame


"In a recent poll, more than eighty-five percent of our 1352 members favored Right-to-Carry." -- Letter to St. Louis Police Chief Ron Henderson, from Sgt. John J. Johnson, President St. Louis Police Officers Association, 1/23/99.

"The Executive Board of the St. Louis Police Officers Association (SLPOA), representing over 1300 commissioned officers employed by the St. Louis Metropolitan Police Department, has voted to support the passage of the April 6, 1999 Right-to-Carry referendum." -- St. Louis Police Officers Assn., 1/99 Press Release

"I lobbied against the law in 1993 and 1995 because I thought it would lead to wholesale armed conflict. That hasn't happened. All the horror stories I thought would come to pass didn't happen. No bogeyman. I think it's worked out well, and that says good things about the citizens who have permits. I'm a convert." -- Glenn White, President of the Dallas Police Association, Dallas Morning News, December 23, 1997.

"From a law enforcement perspective, the licensing process has not resulted in problems in the community from people arming themselves with concealed weapons." -- Commissioner James T. Moore, Florida Department of Law Enforcement, Memo to the Governor, 3/15/95.

"As we have seen in other states and had predicted would occur in Texas, all the fears of the nay sayers have not come to fruition. A lot of critics argued that the law-abiding citizens couldn't be trusted... But the facts do speak for themselves. None of these horror stories have materialized." -- Sheriff David Williams, Tarrant County, TX, Fort Worth Telegram, 7/17/96.

"Some of the public safety concerns which we imagined or anticipated a couple of years ago, to our pleasant surprise, have been unfounded or mitigated." -- Fairfax County VA Police Major Bill Brown, The Alexandria Journal, 7/9/97.

"I was wrong. But I'm glad to say I was wrong." -- Arlington County VA Police Detective Paul Larson, previously an opponent of Right to Carry, The Alexandria Journal, 7/9/97.

"Virginia has not turned into Dodge City. We have not seen a problem." -- Virginia Public Safety Secretary Jerry Kilgore, The Fredricksburg Freelance Star, 2/2/96.

"The concerns I had - with more guns on the street, folks may be more apt to square off against one another with weapons - we haven't experienced that." -- Charlotte-Mecklenburg NC Police Chief Dennis Nowicki, The News and Observer, 11/24/97.

"The preponderance of the evidence suggests that the vast majority (of permit holders) act responsibly." -- State Sen. Jerry Patterson, R-Pasadena, author of Texas' firearm carry law.

"To set the record straight... The process is working... The statistics show a majority of concealed firearms or firearm licensees are honest, law-abiding citizens exercising their right to be armed for the purpose of lawful self defense." -- Sandra B. Mortham, Florida Secretary of State.

"Allowing citizens to carry concealed firearms deters violent crimes and it appears to produce no increase in accidental deaths. If those states which did not have right to carry concealed gun provisions had adopted them in 1992, approximately 1,570 murders, 4,177 rapes and over 60,000 aggravated assaults would have been avoided yearly." -- Professor John R. Lott, Jr. and David B. Mustard, University of Chicago.

"The facts are in and the record is clear: Right to Carry gives law enforcement, their families and our communities real protection from violent criminals." -- James J. Fotis, Executive Director, Law Enforcement Alliance of America.

--from Western Missouri Shooters Alliance

- Janq
There are pages and pages of statistics on this site. You can download the pdf and print it out if need be.
Examples Of Armed Citizens Coming To The Aid Of Officers In Peril

From The Sight There is NO evidence to support the assertion that law enforcement officers are put at risk by law-abiding citizens carrying concealed firearms in their car. There are no studies, even ones with twisted statistics, that draw this conclusion. How can that be? Because there is NO record of a law enforcement officers having been injured by a CCW permit holder during a traffic stop, anywhere in the 44 CCW states.

We can, on the other hand, offer numerous examples of armed citizens coming to the aid of officers in peril.

Herald-Tribune, Sarasota, FL Driving to work one morning, Jim Povia, of Sarasota, Florida, saw a state trooper with his service pistol drawn, confronting a trio of male suspects during a traffic stop. Povia, a right-to-carry permit holder, pulled over and grabbed his .40 cal. pistol and went to the aid of the officer. The two held the men until backup arrived. The driver of the vehicle was driving with a suspended license and a gun was found in the rear of the vehicle. The three men were charged with felony weapons possession.

The Post, Houston, TX In the finest tradition of armed citizens who take on crime in their communities, Texan Travis Neel helped save a wounded Harris County deputy sheriff's life. Witnessing the shooting by one of a trio of Houston gang members after a traffic stop just west of Houston, Neel--who was on his way to his pistol range--pulled his gun and fired, driving the officer's assailants away. An off-duty sheriff's deputy also came on the scene and joined Neel in covering the deputy, whose life was saved by his body armor. The trio was captured after a manhunt.

The Bulletin, Norwich, CT While the situation ended without incident, armed citizen Michael Acree stood ready to lend a hand when a police officer stopped a carload of unruly teenagers outside his Salem, Connecticut, home. Noticing the youths scuffling with the officer, Acree retrieved his pistol and went out onto his lawn. When the youths saw Acree and his handgun, they calmed down and the situation ended peaceably. Acree earned the appreciation both of town officials and the officer.

The Daily Commercial, Leesburg, FL Vincent McCarthy wasn't afraid to lend a hand when he noticed a police officer struggling with a man and woman at the side of the road. He tried to help subdue the man who was kicking the officer in the face. Despite McCarthy's warnings, when the man pressed his assault, the tour boat captain shot him once in the leg with a pistol he is licensed to carry and stopped the attack. Neither the officer nor McCarthy were seriously injured.

The Observer, Charlotte, NC A North Myrtle Beach, N.C., citizen was credited by the city's public safety director with possibly saving the life of Police Officer Richard Jernick. Jernick had pulled over a suspected bank robber's car after a chase, when the suspect charged the cruiser and pointed a gun at the officer, who was still behind the wheel. At that point authorities said, the robbery suspect saw that James Beach, a semi-retired electrician who had joined the pursuit, had a pistol pointed at him. Startled, the robber ran for his car, and Officer Jernick was able to shoot and wound him.

The Star-Banner, Ocala, FL When a drug-trafficking suspect fleeing a state police traffic stop ran through an Ocala, Fla., campground, he was spotted by the manager. Leonard Hicks armed himself and held the man at gunpoint for pursuing officers. An officer later commented, We wouldn't have caught the suspect if it hadn't been for him.

The Valley Daily News, Renton, WA The armed man who intended to rob a Renton, Wash., gunshop should have been forewarned by the police cruiser he had to walk past to enter the store, and the uniformed officer standing just inside the door. Belatedly noticing the policeman, the would-be robber began shooting at him. The officer and a store clerk armed with a semi-auto pistol returned fire, fatally wounding the man.

The Press-Herald, Minden, LA During a drug arrest in Webster Parish, La., a sheriff's deputy and a state trooper found themselves struggling with their two suspects. But four citizens observed the battle and, armed with shotguns, they came to the officers' aid--enabling them to make the arrests.

The Chronicle, San Francisco, CA Dave Storton, a San Jose, Calif., police officer, was doing off-duty security work at an apartment complex when two burglars knocked the officer down and attempted to grab his revolver. During the struggle, one of the assailants bit off part of Storton's ear, but the two attackers were run off by an apartment resident who came to the rescue, armed with a shotgun.

The Daily Oklahoman, Oklahoma City, OK Miami, Okla., motel owner Oba Edwards witnessed two policemen struggling with a man they were attempting to arrest and saw the man wrest away one officer's revolver, shoot and kill him. Edwards armed himself and fired a shot that allowed the remaining officer to recover his partner's revolver and fatally wound the attacker. The dead man was on probation for assault of a Texas police officer.

The Morning Herald, Hagerstown, MD Police officer Chris Haldeman entered a Chambersburg, PA gold and silver exchange to arrest a suspect in a stolen property case, but the man resisted and a struggle ensued. The 220-lb. suspect had Haldeman pinned to the ground and was choking him when storekeeper Ken Cummings pulled his pistol and shot the officer's attacker in the leg. The man, a known felon, managed to escape, and Det. Haldeman was treated at a local hospital and released.

The Morning News, Dallas, TX A stolen car bearing three escaped convicts was stopped on a Kansas highway by a state trooper. When the officer ordered the men from the vehicle, they sped away. With the trooper in pursuit, the escapees crashed in the town of Gorham; two were captured as they crawled free of the wreckage. The third convict attempted to flee on foot, only to be collared by several onlookers who had secured rifles from their pickups at the trooper's call for assistance.

The Times-Tribune, Corbin, KY Corbin, Ky., motel operator Ray Miracle came upon state trooper James Phelps attempting to subdue two drunken occupants of a stopped auto and, carrying his revolver, went to the officer's aid. At that point, another car stopped and one of two men inside levelled a gun on Trooper Phelps. Seeing Miracle's drawn gun, however, they hastily drove off. Kentucky State Police rewarded Miracle with their highest civilian honor.

The Post, Houston, TX Ralph Festavan watched as a heroin peddler attacked a Shreveport, La., policeman and grabbed the officer's gun. Festavan ran to the patrol car parked nearby and got a shotgun with which he shot and killed the pusher.

The Times-Union, Rochester, NY Dennis Koch was putting storm windows on his fiancee's house when he observed a youth run into nearby woods. He passed the information on to a police officer who stopped by minutes later and told Koch he was searching for a burglary suspect. He gave Koch permission to assist him. Carrying his pistol, for which he has a permit, Koch found the youth hiding and held him in custody until the officer could place him under arrest.

The Memphis Press-Scimitar, Memphis, TN A Missouri state trooper had been shot three times by two armed robbery suspects when armed citizen Robert Riley of Tiptonville, Tenn., rushed to his aid. Riley fired a small caliber pistol at the assailants until they surrendered. The law officer was then rushed to a hospital.

Inland Valley Daily Bulletin, Ontario, CA Inland Valley, California, Humane Society officer Amy Murillo, 27, was responding to a local resident's pleas when she attempted to call off a vicious dog. But the animal turned on Murillo, jumping at her and causing her to fall against her vehicle. She suffered several bites to the head and chest from the crazed animal. Witnessing the young officer's plight, the resident who had summoned her help returned the favor by running to his house and retrieving a handgun. The dog then turned on the man who shot twice, killing it.

The Daily Facts, Redlands, CA Redlands, California, sheriff's deputies credited an armed citizen with helping them capture four men and two juveniles who had just robbed a convenience store and pointed a gun at a plain clothes police officer as they made their initial getaway. Following a short chase all the suspects were captured.  One of the guys was detained at gunpoint by a resident who really helped us," Sheriff's Sgt. Bobby Phillips said. "He kept him there on the ground until we got there."

The Review Courier, Alva, OK Things had turned ugly for Oklahoma Highway Patrol Officer Rick Wallace. He had found marijuana on a speeder, but was overpowered by the man before he could cuff him. Passerby Adolph Krejsek witnessed the altercation and came to the rescue, using his own firearm to help the trooper control the suspect. After helping subdue the assailant, Krejsek used the injured trooper's radio to call for help.

Associated Press, IN In Indianapolis 17-year-old Gerald Watson stood near a policeman who questioned a robbery suspect when the suspect's accomplice appeared on the scene and shot the officer down. Watson, who had taught marksmanship at the YMCA, grabbed the fallen policeman's service revolver and shot the felon dead.

UPI, AL In Saraland, Ala., the berserk husband of a woman charged with possession of illegal whisky killed one police officer and wounded another but, as he tried to make his escape, was shot dead by Carlos McDonald, the proprietor of a nearby shop.

UPI, AL Two gunmen kidnapped an Eclectic, Ala., town policeman and used the officer to gain admittance to the home of Carl Ray Barker in the early morning hours. Barker, an Eclectic banker, was taken by one gunman into town to open the bank's vault, his wife, child, and the town policeman being held hostage by the armed companion pending a safe return from the bank. When the time-vault resisted opening, the gunman returned Barker to his house and, after some debate, took the policeman away with him to get tape for binding all hostages until morning, when another attempt was to be made on the vault. Barker, now held in his home with wife and child by the second armed man, asked if he could make coffee. The robber assented and Barker put water on the stove and got it boiling. "I took the scalding water to the living room," said Barker. "When he held his cup, I just poured the water in his face and grabbed his gun." Barker pistol-whipped the robber into submission, loaded a shotgun and waited for the return of the other bandit. When the door opened, the captive policeman dived out of the way and Barker killed the would-be bank robber with two blasts. Barker said he feared for his family's safety and, "I didn't want my bank to get a bad name about being robbed."

Article used by permission from the Ohioans For Concealed Carry PAC

- Janq was formerly anti-CCW
Additional state information can be found via the net if you look for it such as Texas below;

Texas Dept. of Public Safety
Regulatory Licensing Service
Concealed Handgun Licensing Bureau
2001 Conviction Rates of Concealed Handgun License Holders


Conviction Count of Licensed Individuals* Conviction Count of Non-Licensed Individuals** Percentage of Total Convictions Committed by Licensed Individuals
180 35,070 0.51064%

For information toward crime overall in the US including stats per annum dating back a decade one can find that via the FBI at;

- Janq
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This looks good. I'll make sure to show my dad this info tomorrow.
Find any of the books written by John Lott. He'll have several hundred pages of actual data. Or check his web page. FBI data for every state with CCW shows the crime rate goes down.
ElMonoDelMar said:
I'll check the NRA ILA site.

Do you have any links to those articles from the Detroit News?
I have a PDF file I will try and figure out how to send, from the MSP 2005 CCW report, and the link for the Detroit news has expired but I do have a Gun Facts PDF also that has a lot of good data. I cannot attach to this message as the file size is too big I will try a e mail.
HotGuns said:
Ever notice that crime in the citys is more prevalent than crime in the countryside ?

The BG's know that if they get out of city limits their chances of getting shot go way up !
+1, and also look at cities that don't have CCW, for example DC the crime is terrible. However, in reality it is somewhat hard to track this because news stations rarely report good stuff happending.
Sheldon J said:
I have a PDF file I will try and figure out how to send, from the MSP 2005 CCW report, and the link for the Detroit news has expired but I do have a Gun Facts PDF also that has a lot of good data. I cannot attach to this message as the file size is too big I will try a e mail.
I've already got the PDF. Thanks for the thought, though.
skinewmexico said:
Find any of the books written by John Lott. He'll have several hundred pages of actual data. Or check his web page. FBI data for every state with CCW shows the crime rate goes down.
Good advice, Lott's research has produced some excellent information that even the anti-gun crowd can't really call into question due to his unbiased methods.

Also do a seach for some of Gary Kleck's articles, his stuff is good also. IIRC, he was an "anti" who actually set out to prove that guns contibute to crime, etc. However, after conducting his research his opinions did a complete 180.
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