I've posted this before, there's been at least one study that look at "hydro-static shock" that set the parameters at 500 ft pounds and 12" of penetration.Ya left out the cliche "doctors can't tell a difference" which is an anecdotal generalization.
Most likely these cliches that are repeatedly posted on gun forums as fact are based on common ammo, in mainstream calibers including FMJ.
Do doctors spend time on discerning and documenting differences in wounds or focus on saving the patient? I'm guessing the second.
2,000 fps threshold, at that velocity (magically) damage greater than the expanded diameter of the bullet, below that ex: 1,850 fps - nothing? I think not.
Perhaps at common pistol velocities 850-1,100 fps hydrostatic shock is not a factor, so doctors would not likely see that effect in the majority of handgun wounds.
I think some effect on tissue might be seen below 2,000 fps, (fps where it begins unknown) gradually increasing with velocity. (Hypothesis)
To test this hypothesis I shot a deer with a 155 gr. XTP 10mm which expands to about .65
Unlike the "doctors who can't tell a difference" I took pics. with measures of reference, documentation not anecdotal.
The bullet made a 1 1/4'' exit hole leaving the entry side shoulder, and yes I have a measuring tape in pic documenting the wound.
A bit less graphic is the the hole that bullet made exiting the heart, obviously larger than the quarter (.95) used for reference.
View attachment 304028
View attachment 304030
That ^ hole larger than a quarter through dense tissue is after the bullet had already penetrated shoulder/leg, making an even larger hole.
What effect allowed a bullet that expands to .65 to make significantly larger permanent holes in tissue? Bullet velocity was below the magic 2,000 fps.
Maybe a velocity over 1,300 fps? Maybe over 600# KE? Also obtained with 357 Mag and 357 Sig which have very good street results, so I've read.
Regardless the 2,000 fps generalization, may not be correct; just like the one about 10mm overpenetrates.
Was doing some research as to the "why" the .357MAG with 125grn has a favorable reputation as a "stopper". This sort of flies in the face of the conventional wisdom that "all service calibers perform basically the same with modern defensive ammo" mantra. There may be some physiological "stuff" to it.
Energy Transfer Required for Remote Neural Effects Our own research (Courtney and Courtney) supports the conclusion that handgun levels of energy transfer can produce pressure waves leading to incapacitation and injury. The work of Suneson et al. also suggests that remote neural effects can occur with levels of energy transfer possible with handguns (roughly 500 ftlbs/700 joules).
https://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/0803/0803.3051.pdfEven though Wang et al. document remote neural damage for low levels of energy transfer, these levels of neural damage are probably too small to contribute to rapid incapacitation. Courtney and Courtney suggest that remote neural effects only begin to make significant contributions to rapid incapacitation for ballistic pressure wave levels above 500 PSI (corresponds to transferring roughly 300 ft-lbs in 12 inches of penetration) and become easily observable above 1000 PSI (corresponds to transferring roughly 600 ft-lbs in 1 foot of penetration). Incapacitating effects in this range of energy transfer are consistent with observations of remote spinal injuries, observations of suppressed EEGs and breathing interruptions in pigs, and with observations of incapacitating effects of ballistic pressure waves without a wound channel.